Common antiretroviral combinations are associated with somatic depressive symptoms in women with HIV

Luis Parra-Rodriguez, Jane O'Halloran, Yuezhe Wang, Wei Jin, Raha M. Dastgheyb, Amanda B. Spence, Anjali Sharma, Deborah R. Gustafson, Joel Milam, Kathleen M. Weber, Adaora A. Adimora, Igho Ofotokun, Margaret A. Fischl, Deborah Konkle-Parker, Pauline M. Maki, Yanxun Xu, Leah H. Rubin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective:While modern antiretroviral therapy (ART) is highly effective and safe, depressive symptoms have been associated with certain ART drugs. We examined the association between common ART regimens and depressive symptoms in women with HIV (WWH) with a focus on somatic vs. nonsomatic symptoms.Design:Analysis of longitudinal data from the Women's Interagency HIV Study.Methods:Participants were classified into three groups based on the frequency of positive depression screening (CES-D ≥16): chronic depression (≥50% of visits since study enrollment), infrequent depression (<50% of visits), and never depressed (no visits). Novel Bayesian machine learning methods building upon a subset-tree kernel approach were developed to estimate the combined effects of ART regimens on depressive symptoms in each group after covariate adjustment.Results:The analysis included 1538 WWH who participated in 12 924 (mean=8.4) visits. The mean age was 49.9years, 72% were Black, and 14% Hispanic. In the chronic depression group, combinations including tenofovir alafenamide and cobicistat-boosted elvitegravir and/or darunavir were associated with greater somatic symptoms of depression, whereas those combinations containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and efavirenz or rilpivirine were associated with less somatic depressive symptoms. ART was not associated with somatic symptoms in the infrequent depression or never depressed groups. ART regimens were not associated with nonsomatic symptoms in any group.Conclusions:Specific ART combinations are associated with somatic depressive symptoms in WWH with chronic depression. Future studies should consider specific depressive symptoms domains as well as complete drug combinations when assessing the relationship between ART and depression.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)167-176
Number of pages10
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2024


  • HIV
  • antiretroviral therapy
  • depression
  • depressive symptoms
  • women


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