Commingling and segregation patterns of fasting plasma glucose (GL) were examined in family data from 5 clinics (Cincinnati, Stanford, Iowa, Minnesota, and Oklahoma) of the Lipid Research Clinics (LRC) family study. In addition to the primary question of whether there was a major gene for GL, a secondary purpose was to investigate the possibility of genetic heterogeneity among the 5 clinics. No statistical support was found for heterogeneity among clinics, either in the commingling of distributions or in the segregation patterns. For the combined clinics sample, both a major effect and a multifactorial component were significant. However, the major effect (accounting for 73% of the variance) was not found to be consistent with a major gene, as the hypothesis of Mendelian transmission was rejected. The most parsimonious model involved equal transmission probabilities, which suggests that the major effect is not transmitted from parents to offspring. Possible sources of this major non-Mendelian effect were explored. The multifactorial component accounted for 10% of the variance in GL levels, and no generational differences were noted. Although our study was unable to provide evidence in favor of a major gene effect, it should be noted that a major gene cannot be firmly refuted. For example, a variety of interactions, such as genotype-dependent age effects, could have masked the transmission probabilities.