DNA CpG methylation is a widespread epigenetic mark in high eukaryotes including mammals. DNA methylation plays key roles in diverse biological processes such as X chromosome inactivation, transposable element repression, genomic imprinting, and control of gene expression. Recent advancements in sequencing-based DNA methylation profiling methods provide an unprecedented opportunity to measure DNA methylation in a genome-wide fashion, making it possible to comprehensively investigate the role of DNA methylation. Several methods have been developed, such as Whole Genome Bisulfite Sequencing (WGBS), Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing (RRBS), and enrichment-based methods including Methylation Dependent ImmunoPrecipitation followed by sequencing (MeDIP-seq), methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) protein-enriched genome sequencing (MBD-seq), methyltransferase-directed Transfer of Activated Groups followed by sequencing (mTAG), and Methylation-sensitive Restriction Enzyme digestion followed by sequencing (MRE-seq). These methods differ by their genomic CpG coverage, resolution, quantitative accuracy, cost, and software for analyzing the data. Among these, WGBS is considered the gold standard. However, it is still a cost-prohibitive technology for a typical laboratory due to the required sequencing depth. We found that by integrating two enrichment-based methods that are complementary in nature (i.e., MeDIP-seq and MRE-seq), we can significantly increase the efficiency of whole DNA methylome profiling. By using two recently developed computational algorithms (i.e., M&M and methylCRF), the combination of MeDIP-seq and MRE-seq produces genome-wide CpG methylation measurement at high coverage and high resolution, and robust predictions of differentially methylated regions. Thus, the combination of the two enrichment-based methods provides a cost-effective alternative to WGBS. In this article we describe both the experimental protocols for performing MeDIP-seq and MRE-seq, and the computational protocols for running M&M and methylCRF.
- DNA methylation