Combined Surgical Dislocation and Periacetabular Osteotomy for Complex Residual Legg-Calvé-Perthes Deformities: Intermediate-Term Outcomes

Jeffrey J. Nepple, Serena Freiman, Gail Pashos, Tanner Thornton, Perry L. Schoenecker, John C. Clohisy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Residual Legg-Calvé-Perthes (LCP) deformities represent one of the most challenging disorders in hip reconstructive surgery. In complex cases, both instability (acetabular dysplasia) and multifocal femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) (proximal femoral deformities) require correction. We assessed intermediate-term patient-reported outcome measures, radiographic correction, complications, and survivorship for combined surgical dislocation (SD) and periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) for the treatment of complex LCP deformities. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed on 31 hips with complex LCP deformities undergoing combined SD and PAO for concurrent instability and FAI. Treatment included femoral head reshaping, trochanteric advancement and relative femoral neck lengthening, management of intra-articular lesions, and PAO. Twenty-seven hips (87%) had a minimum follow-up of 5 years. The mean age was 19.8 years, 56% of patients were female, and 44% of patients had undergone a previous surgical procedure. Results: At a mean of 8.4 years, 85% of hips (23 of 27) remained preserved (no conversion to total hip arthroplasty). The survivorship estimates were 93% at 5 years and 85% at 10 years. The median (and interquartile range) increased from 64 points (55, 67 points) to 92 points (70, 97 points) (p < 0.001) for the modified Harris hip score (mHHS) and from 60 points (45, 75 points) to 86 points (75, 100 points) (p = 0.001) for the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain score. Symptoms (mHHS < 70 points) were reported for an additional 19% of hips (n = 5) at the final follow-up. The University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) activity score increased from a median of 8 points (6, 10 points) to 9 points (7, 10 points) (p = 0.207). Structural correction included mean improvement (and standard deviation) of 15.3° ± 7.6° for acetabular inclination, 20.7° ± 10.8° for the lateral center-edge angle, 23.4° ± 16.3° for the anterior center-edge angle, and 18 ± 10 mm for trochanteric height (p < 0.001 for all). Complications occurred in 2 hips (7%), including 1 deep wound infection and 1 superficial wound infection. There was 1 reoperation due to complication, but there were no nerve palsies, thromboembolic events, fractures, or nonunions. Conclusions: At an intermediate follow-up of combined SD and PAO for complex LCP deformities, 85% of hips were preserved. This procedure provides reliable deformity correction, major pain relief, improved function, and acceptable complication and failure rates.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)780-789
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Bone and Joint Surgery - Series A
Volume104
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - May 4 2022

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