With color Doppler flow mapping (CFM), we studied 16 children with total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC), which was confirmed at cardiac catheterization, surgery, or autopsy in all but one case. The drainage was supracardiac in nine children, cardiac in four, and infracardiac in three. Obstruction to pulmonary venous return was present in seven children. Increased variance, reflecting disturbed blood flow, as well as increased velocities and aliasing were present in all patients. In patients without obstruction turbulence was present in the right atrium and throughout the common pulmonary venous structures. In patients with obstruction a discrete site of increased turbulence and velocity was identified at the site of obstruction. CFM allows rapid differentiation between normal and abnormal venous and arterial structures in TAPVC. In patients suspected of having TAPVC with obstruction, CFM complemented by pulsed Doppler facilitates the determination of the site of obstruction. CFM allows a more rapid appreciation of the anatomy in TAPVC than can be achieved by two-dimensional imaging alone.
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography|
|State||Published - 1988|