Objective: To determine whether a high prevalence (55%) of Aβ deposition in a cohort of individuals remaining dementia-free into their 9th and 10th decades is associated with cognitive decline prior to imaging. Methods: A total of 194 participants (mean age 85.5 years, range 82-95) who completed the Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory Study (GEMS) and remained dementia-free subsequently completed Pittsburgh compound B-PET imaging. We examined cross-sectional associations between Aβ status and performance on a broad neuropsychological test battery completed at GEMS entry 7-9 years prior to neuroimaging. We also longitudinally examined cognition over annual evaluations using linear mixed models. Results: At GEMS screening (2000-2002), participants who were Aβ-positive in 2009 had lower performance on the Stroop test (p < 0.01) and Raven's Progressive Matrices (p = 0.05), with trend level difference for Block Design (p = 0.07). Longitudinal analyses showed significant slope differences for immediate and delayed recall of the Rey-Osterrieth figure, semantic fluency, and Trail-Making Test parts A and B, indicating greater performance decline prior to neuroimaging for Aβ-positive relative to Aβ-negative participants (ps < 0.05). Conclusions: Highly prevalent Aβ deposition in oldest-older adults is associated with cognitive decline in visual memory, semantic fluency, and psychomotor speed beginning 7-9 years prior to neuroimaging. Mean differences in nonmemory domains, primarily executive functions, between Aβ-status groups may be detectable 7-9 years before neuroimaging.