Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the distribution of cognitive function in people with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) by objective and self-report measures and associations between cognition and participation among people with SLE. Methods: Fifty-five volunteers with SLE (age: 39.7 ± 12.7yrs, female: 92.7%) completed the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) to measure cognitive ability objectively, the Cognitive Symptom Inventory (CSI) and PROMIS Cognitive Function 8a (CF) to assess self-reported everyday cognition, and PROMIS-43 Profile to assess self-reported ability to participate in social roles and activities (participation) and other disease-associated symptoms (e.g., depression, pain, fatigue). Results: The average MoCA score was 25.3 ± 3.1, with 47.3% of participants scoring <26, which is indicative of cognitive impairment. Group average CSI (35.8 ± 7.9), CF (T-score = 45.0 ± 8.5), and participation (T-score = 46.9 ± 11.2) scores suggest mildly impaired functional cognition and participation compared to normative data. Participation correlated with self-reported everyday cognition measures (r ≥ 0.56, p < 0.01) but not with MoCA (r = 0.25, p = 0.06). In hierarchical linear regression analysis, CSI, fatigue, and pain were each significant independent predictors of participation (R2 = 0.78, p < 0.01). Conclusions: We found that cognitive dysfunction is common among people with SLE. Along with pain and fatigue, reduced everyday cognitive function contributes to reduced participation in social, leisure, work, and family-related activities.
- Systemic lupus erythematosus
- cognitive dysfunction