Co-location of lightning leader x-ray and electric field change sources

J. Howard, M. A. Uman, J. R. Dwyer, D. Hill, C. Biagi, Z. Saleh, J. Jerauld, H. K. Rassoul

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62 Scopus citations


Using an eight-station time of arrival (TOA) network composed of NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors and wideband electric field derivative (dE/dt) antennas covering approximately 1 km2 on the ground, we have located both the sources of X-ray emissions and electric field changes produced during the leader phase of both downward negative natural and rocket-triggered lightning strokes. We show that the sources of X rays and leader step electric field changes are co-located in space within 50 m and that the located X rays are emitted 0.1 to 1.3 μs after the origin of the leader step electric field changes.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberL13817
JournalGeophysical Research Letters
Issue number13
StatePublished - Jul 16 2008


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