objective. While incidence, mortality, morbidity, and recurrence rates of C. difficile infection (CDI) among the critically ill have been investigated, the impact of its recurrence on 30-day rehospitalization (ReAd), an important policy focus, has not been examined. design. Secondary analysis of a multicenter retrospective cohort study patients. Adult critically ill patients who survived their index hospitalization complicated by CDI methods. CDI was defined by diarrhea or pseudomembranous colitis and a positive assay for C. difficile toxins A and/or B. CDI recurrence (rCDI) was defined as diarrhea, positive C. difficile toxin and need for retreatment after cessation of therapy. Descriptive statistics and a logistic regression examined ReAd rates and characteristics, and factors that impact it. results. Among 287 hospital survivors, 76 (26.5%) required ReAd (ReAd+). At baseline, the ReAd+ group did not differ significantly from the ReAd– group based on demographics, comorbidities, APACHE II scores, or ICU type. ReAd+ patients were more likely to have hypotension at CDI onset (48.7% vs 34.1%, P=.025) and to require vasopressors (40.0% vs 27.1%, P=.038); they were less likely to require mechanical ventilation (56.0% vs 77.3%, P<.001). A far greater proportion of ReAd+ than ReAd– had developed a recurrence either during the index hospitalization or within 30 days after discharge (32.89% vs 2.84%, P<.001). In a logistic regression, rCDI was a strong predictor of ReAd+ (adjusted odd ratio, 15.33, 95% confidence interval, 5.68–41.40). conclusions. Greater than 25% of all survivors of critical illness complicated by CDI require readmission within 30 days of discharge. CDI recurrence is a strong predictor of such rehospitalizations.