The purpose of this study was to evaluate risk factors, protective factors, and outcomes associated with Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) in allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. A case-control study was performed with 37 CDAD cases and 67 controls. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, receipt of a third or fourth generation cephalosporin was associated with increased risk of CDAD (OR = 4.6, 95% CI 1.6-13.1). Receipt of growth factors was associated with decreased risk of CDAD (OR=0.1, 95% CI 0.02-0.3). Cases were more likely to develop a blood stream infection after CDAD than were controls at any point before discharge (p < 0.001). CDAD cases were more likely than controls to develop new onset graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) (p < 0.001), new onset severe GVHD (p < 0.001), or new onset gut GVHD (p = 0.007) after CDAD/discharge. Severe CDAD was a risk factor for death at 180 d in multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression (HR=2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6.2). CDAD is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in allogeneic HSCT patients, but modifiable risk factors exist. Further study is needed to determine the best methods of decreasing patients' risk of CDAD.
- Clostridium difficile
- Hematopoietic stem-cell transplant