Clostridioides difficile Infections in Inpatient Pediatric Oncology Patients: A Cohort Study Evaluating Risk Factors and Associated Outcomes

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Abstract

Background: Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is a significant source of morbidity in pediatric cancer patients. Few reports to date have evaluated risk factors and short-term outcomes for this population. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated pediatric oncology admissions at St Louis Children's Hospital from 2009 to 2018. All inpatient cases of diagnosed initial CDI were identified. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of CDI and associated risk factors, including coadmission with another patient with CDI, and to evaluate short-term outcomes including length of stay and delays in subsequent scheduled chemotherapy. Results: Review of 6567 admissions from 952 patients revealed 109 CDI cases (11.4% of patients). Patients with leukemia or lymphoma, compared to those with solid tumors, were more likely to have CDI (odds ratio [OR], 3 [95% CI, 1.4-6.6], and 3 [95% CI, 1.3-6.8], respectively). Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) was also a risk factor (OR, 3.5 [95% CI, 1.7-7.4]). Prior antibiotic exposure independently increased the risk for CDI (OR, 3.0 [95% CI, 1.8-4.8]). Concurrent admission with another patient with CDI also significantly increased the risk (OR, 84.7 [95% CI, 10.5-681.8]). In contrast to previous reports, exposure to acid-suppressing medications decreased the risk for CDI (OR, 0.5 [95% CI,. 3-.7]). CDI was associated with increased length of stay (mean difference, 8 days [95% CI, 4.6-11.4]) and prolonged delays for subsequent chemotherapy (mean difference, 1.4 days [95% CI,. 1-2.7]). Conclusions: CDI in pediatric oncology patients significantly prolongs hospitalization and delays chemotherapy treatment plans. Interventions to control CDI will improve the care of pediatric oncology patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)302-308
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Volume10
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2021

Keywords

  • Clostridioides difficile
  • oncology
  • outcomes
  • pediatric

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