Clinicopathologic features of adult T-cell leukemias/lymphomas at a North American tertiary care medical center: Infrequent involvement of the central nervous system

Andy C. Hsi, Friederike H. Kreisel, John L. Frater, Tudung T. Nguyen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Scopus citations

Abstract

Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). Published series of ATLLs seen at a United States medical institution are rare. We present the features of 4 ATLLs diagnosed at our North American tertiary care medical center from 1990 to 2012. Despite the absence of a history of origin from an endemic region, all our ATLLs demonstrated evidence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 infection. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement by ATLL was uncommon in our series, and represented only 1.6% (1/64) of all CNS B-cell or T-cell lymphomas diagnosed over a 20+ year period at our institution. Review of the medical literature reveals that the majority of CNS-involved ATLLs present with the lymphoma or acute subtype, and complete remission is difficult to achieve in these cases. CNS involvement frequently occurs with a systemic disease, which carries an aggressive clinical course with poor prognosis. In addition, CNS involvement by ATLL can be the initial presentation or seen with relapsed disease, can be the only site or be associated with other tissue sites of involvement, and may manifest with variable clinical signs/symptoms. Our retrospective study reveals that ATLLs are rare mature T-cell lymphomas in a native North American population, but the clinical and histopathologic features of ATLLs from this nonendemic region are similar to those seen from other endemic regions. Early recognition of these rare ATLLs involving uncommon sites, such as the CNS, will help optimize treatment for these infrequent mature T-cell lymphomas.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)245-256
Number of pages12
JournalAmerican Journal of Surgical Pathology
Volume38
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2014

Keywords

  • HTLV-1 virus
  • North America
  • T-cell leukemia/lymphoma
  • central nervous system

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