Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors (PMT) are rare neoplasms characterized by secretion of FGF23, resulting in renal phosphate wasting and osteomalacia. This tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is cured by complete resection; thus, diagnosis is important, particularly on biopsy. Although PMT have a classic histologic appearance of bland spindled cells with conspicuous vascular network and characteristic smudgy basophilic matrix, there is a broad histologic spectrum and variant histologic patterns can make recognition difficult. Recent studies have demonstrated FN1-FGFR1 and FN1-FGF1 gene fusions in PMT; however, approximately 50% of cases are negative for these fusions. We sought to characterize 6 cases of PMT in-depth, compare fusion detection methods, and determine whether alternative fusions could be uncovered by targeted RNA sequencing. Of the 6 cases of PMT in our institutional archive, 3 were not given diagnoses of PMT at the time of initial pathologic examination. We characterized the immunoprofile (SMA, D2-40, CD56, S100 protein, desmin, SATB2, and ERG) and gene fusion status (FN1 and FGFR1 rearrangements by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and two targeted RNA sequencing approaches) in these cases. Tumors were consistently positive for SATB2 and negative for desmin, with 5/6 cases expressing ERG and CD56. One specimen was acid-decalcified and failed FISH and RNA sequencing. We found FN1 gene rearrangements by FISH in 2/5 cases, and a FN1-FGFR1 fusion by targeted RNA sequencing. No alternative gene fusions were identified by RNA sequencing. Our findings suggest that IHC and molecular analysis can aid in the diagnosis of PMT, guiding excision of the tumor and resolution of osteomalacia.
- Fluorescence in situ hybridization
- Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor
- RNA sequencing
- Tumor-induced osteomalacia