Clinical usefulness of esophageal high resolution manometry and adjunctive tests: An update

C. Prakash Gyawali, Roberto Penagini

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


High resolution manometry (HRM), developed from conventional manometry, is the gold standard for assessment of esophageal motor function worldwide. The Chicago Classification, now in its fourth iteration, is the modern standard for HRM categorization of esophageal motility disorders. The HRM protocol has expanded from the original 10 supine swallow standard, to include upright swallows, and provocative maneuvers such as multiple rapid swallows, rapid drink challenge and standardized test meal. Impedance has been incorporated into HRM for visualization of bolus clearance. Futhermore, barium radiography and functional lumen imaging probe complement HRM when evidence of esophagogastric junction obstruction is inconclusive. The biggest impact of HRM is in the improved diagnosis and subtyping of achalasia spectrum disorders, with implications on management. Spastic disorders and absent contractility are better characterized. Within the reflux spectrum, HRM provides definition of morphology and tone of the esophagogastric junction, and assesses integrity of esophageal body peristalsis, which have pathophysiologic implications for reflux and its clearance. HRM provides characterization of behavioral disorders such as supragastric belching and rumination syndrome, which can mimic reflux disease. Thus, HRM has revolutionized the evaluation of esophageal motor function, and has expanded the utility of esophageal manometry in clinical practice.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1373-1380
Number of pages8
JournalDigestive and Liver Disease
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2021


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