The terminal Schwann cell (tSC), a type of nonmyelinating Schwann cell, is a significant yet relatively understudied component of the neuromuscular junction. In addition to reviewing the role tSCs play on formation, maintenance, and remodeling of the synapse, we review studies that implicate tSCs in neuromuscular diseases including spinal muscular atrophy, Miller–Fisher syndrome, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, among others. We also discuss the importance of these cells on degeneration and regeneration after nerve injury. Knowledge of tSC biology may improve our understanding of disease pathogenesis and help us identify new and innovative therapeutic strategies for the many patients who suffer from neuromuscular disorders and nerve injuries.
- Schwann cells
- neuromuscular junction