Background:Because of the complex nature and relatively rare prevalence of triplane fractures, ideal imaging and optimal treatment remain controversial. The purpose of this investigation was to systematically review and compare clinical outcomes in skeletally immature patients with triplane fractures on the basis of imaging modalities [radiography alone vs. radiography+computed tomography (CT)] and fracture management (operative vs. nonoperative).Methods:A systematic review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement using a PRISMA checklist. All the literature related to skeletally immature patients with triplane fractures published from January 1988 to March 2020 were identified. Inclusion criteria consisted of skeletally immature patients with triplane fractures with reported imaging modality performed during diagnosis, fracture management, and postoperative outcomes on the basis of functional scores and the incidence of any complications.Results:A total of 11 articles met inclusion criteria, comprising a total of 203 skeletally immature patients with 203 documented triplane fractures. Male individuals were significantly older at the time of injury (14.2±0.6 y) when compared with female individuals (12.6±0.9 y) (P=0.006). Fracture diagnosis and management were evaluated using radiography+CT in 63% (128/203) of patients, whereas 37% (75/203) underwent radiography only. No significant differences in good/excellent Modified Weber Protocol scores were reported in patients treated nonoperatively versus those undergoing operative treatment (P=0.78), whereas Modified Weber Protocol scores were significantly higher in patients using radiography alone (P=0.02). No significant difference in complication incidence was reported on the basis of management type (nonoperative, 16%; operative, 15%; P=0.47).Conclusions:Patients undergoing operative management of triplane fractures achieved comparable functional outcomes scores without an increased incidence of complications when compared with patients undergoing nonoperative treatment. Further investigations analyzing outcomes at middle and long-term follow-up are necessary to determine the clinical utility of CT and various treatment modalities for the management of triplane fractures.Level of Evidence:Level IV - Systematic review.
- computed tomography