Background: The infectious complications in hemodialysis patients are still among the main reasons for their increased morbidity and mortality. The possible reasons behind this might be due to impairments in the host defense mechanisms, comorbidities, invasive procedures and pathogenicity of the infecting organisms. With the increased incidence of bacteremia in hemodialysis patients and the overt use of antibiotics, we have witnessed a rise in the number of new multidrug resistant (MDR) strains in those patients. Aim: We aim to determine the epidemiology, risk factors and complications of infections in patients receiving chronic hemodialysis, particularly bloodstream infections. Methods: This is a retrospective case-control study involving patients undergoing hemodialysis at a tertiary care center. We studied the prevalence of infectious complications among those patients as well as the responsible agent in each respective infectious episode and the risk factors associated with bacteremia. Findings: 46.6% of the studied population had at least one documented episode of infection. The most common were blood and respiratory infections (33.2% and 32.7% respectively). Among patients with bacteremia, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the predominant pathogen (49% of cases), followed by Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Mortality was higher in patients who had MDR bacteremia, and in those who had mechanical ventilation or intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Conclusion: Due to the alarming increase in the incidence of infection among hemodialysis patients and its strong association with mortality, further studies are needed to look for risk factors associated with infection and for ways to control those risk factors.
- Bloodstream infection
- Hospital-acquired infection
- Multi-drug resistant organisms