Cell-autonomous, tissue-specific circadian rhythms in gene expression and cellular processes have been observed throughout the human body. Disruption of daily rhythms by mistimed exposure to light, food intake, or genetic mutation has been linked to cancer development. Some medications are also more effective at certain times of day. However, a limited number of clinical studies have examined daily rhythms in the patient or drug timing as treatment strategies. This review highlights advances and challenges in cancer biology as a function of time of day. Recent evidence for daily rhythms and their entrainment in tumors indicate that personalized medicine should include understanding and accounting for daily rhythms in cancer patients.