Background: Smoking and second-hand smoking [SHS] cause significant cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. In healthy individuals and adults with chronic kidney disease [CKD], cigarette smoking is associated with albuminuria, increased risk for CKD, increased graft loss and progression of renal insufficiency. In children, SHS has been associated with higher blood pressure variability, blood pressure load, elevated C-reactive protein and decreased cognitive function. Using a survey document and urine cotinine, we sought to investigate prevalence of cigarette use and SHS in adolescents with CKD.Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in which adolescents aged 13 to 18 years with CKD were asked to complete a single anonymous self-administered survey. In addition, a single freshly voided urine sample for cotinine measurement was obtained from eligible subjects.Results. Of 182 subjects, 60 (34%), 25 (14%) and 93 (52%) were transplant recipients, were dialysis dependent and had a glomerulopathy, respectively. Renal status was lacking in four. Twenty-four per cent (24%) had smoked at some point in their lives, and 13% had smoked within the last 30 days of taking the survey. Fifty-two per cent (52%) of all respondents reported living with an adult who smoked, and 54% reported having friends that smoked. Forty-seven per cent (47%) and 44% of those who had never smoked lived with an adult and had friends that smoked, respectively. There was a discrepancy rate of 7% between self-reported non-smokers and urine cotinine, suggesting smoking rates were higher. The highest cotinine/creatinine levels among the non-smokers were observed in those who lived with a smoker and had friends that smoked.Conclusion. Among adolescents with CKD, cigarette smoking and SHS exposure are prevalent and may be important variables to consider when evaluating renal and cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes in children with CKD.
- second-hand smoking