Chronic Immune Activation in TB/HIV Co-infection

Riti Sharan, Allison N. Bucşan, Shashank Ganatra, Mirko Paiardini, Mahesh Mohan, Smriti Mehra, Shabaana A. Khader, Deepak Kaushal

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


HIV co-infection is the most critical risk factor for the reactivation of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI). While CD4+ T cell depletion has been considered the major cause of HIV-induced reactivation of LTBI, recent work in macaques co-infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) suggests that cytopathic effects of SIV resulting in chronic immune activation and dysregulation of T cell homeostasis correlate with reactivation of LTBI. This review builds on compelling data that the reactivation of LTBI during HIV co-infection is likely to be driven by the events of HIV replication and therefore highlights the need to have optimum translational interventions directed at reactivation due to co-infection.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)619-632
Number of pages14
JournalTrends in Microbiology
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2020


  • Mtb
  • SIV
  • chronic immune activation
  • co-infection
  • nonhuman primates


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