One of the most common malignancies affecting adults with Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is the malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST), an aggressive and often fatal sarcoma that commonly arises from benign plexiform neurofibromas. Despite advances in our understanding of MPNST pathobiology, there are few effective therapeutic options, and no investigational agents have proven successful in clinical trials. To further understand the genomic heterogeneity of MPNST, and to generate a preclinical platform that encompasses this heterogeneity, we developed a collection of NF1-MPNST patient-derived xenografts (PDX). These PDX were compared with the primary tumors from which they were derived using copy number analysis, whole exome sequencing, and RNA sequencing. We identified chromosome 8 gain as a recurrent genomic event in MPNST and validated its occurrence by FISH in the PDX and parental tumors, in a validation cohort, and by single-cell sequencing in the PDX. Finally, we show that chromosome 8 gain is associated with inferior overall survival in soft-tissue sarcomas. These data suggest that chromosome 8 gain is a critical event in MPNST pathogenesis and may account for the aggressive nature and poor outcomes in this sarcoma subtype.