Background: Higher mammographic breast density (MBD) is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer when compared with lower MBD, especially in premenopausal women. However, little is known about the effectiveness of chemoprevention agents in reducing MBD in premenopausal women without a history of breast cancer. Findings from this review should provide insight on how to target MBD in breast cancer prevention in premenopausal women with dense breasts. Methods: We searched 9 electronic databases for clinical trials in English, Spanish, French, or German published until January 2020. Articles evaluating the association of pharmacological agents and MBD were included. Data were extracted on methods, type and dose of intervention, outcomes, side effects, and follow up. Quality of the studies was assessed using the US Preventive Services Task Force criteria. Results: We identified 7 clinical trials evaluating the associations of 6 chemoprevention agents with changes in MBD in premenopausal women without history of breast cancer. The studies evaluated selective estrogen-receptor modulators (n = 1); gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (n = 2); isoflavones (n = 1); vitamin D (n = 1); and Boswellia, betaine, and mayo-inositol compound (n = 1). Hormonal interventions were associated with net reductions in percent density (tamoxifen [13.4%], leuprolide acetate [8.9%], and goserelin [2.7%]), whereas nonhormonal (vitamin D and isoflavone) interventions were not. However, MBD returned to preintervention baseline levels after cessation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists. Conclusions: A limited number of chemoprevention agents have been shown to reduce MBD in premenopausal women. Identification of new and well-tolerated chemoprevention agents targeting MBD and larger studies to confirm agents that have been studied in small trials are urgent priorities for primary breast cancer prevention in premenopausal women with dense breasts.