The analysis of neoantigen-specific CD8+ T cells in tumour-bearing individuals is challenging due to the small pool of tumour antigen-specific T cells. Here we show that mass cytometry with multiplex combinatorial tetramer staining can identify and characterize neoantigen-specific CD8+ T cells in mice bearing T3 methylcholanthrene-induced sarcomas that are susceptible to checkpoint blockade immunotherapy. Among 81 candidate antigens tested, we identify T cells restricted to two known neoantigens simultaneously in tumours, spleens and lymph nodes in tumour-bearing mice. High-dimensional phenotypic profiling reveals that antigen-specific, tumour-infiltrating T cells are highly heterogeneous. We further show that neoantigen-specific T cells display a different phenotypic profile in mice treated with anti-CTLA-4 or anti-PD-1 immunotherapy, whereas their peripheral counterparts are not affected by the treatments. Our results provide insights into the nature of neoantigen-specific T cells and the effects of checkpoint blockade immunotherapy.