cHCC-CCA: Consensus terminology for primary liver carcinomas with both hepatocytic and cholangiocytic differentation

Elizabeth Brunt, Shinichi Aishima, Pierre Alain Clavien, Kathryn Fowler, Zachary Goodman, Gregory Gores, Annette Gouw, Alex Kagen, David Klimstra, Mina Komuta, Fukuo Kondo, Rebecca Miksad, Masayuki Nakano, Yasuni Nakanuma, Irene Ng, Valerie Paradis, Young Nyun Park, Alberto Quaglia, Massimo Roncalli, Tania RoskamsMichiie Sakamoto, Romil Saxena, Christine Sempoux, Claude Sirlin, Ashley Stueck, Swan Thung, W. M.S. Tsui, Xin Wei Wang, Aileen Wee, Hirohisa Yano, Matthew Yeh, Yoh Zen, Jessica Zucman-Rossi, Neil Theise

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

239 Scopus citations


Primary liver carcinomas with both hepatocytic and cholangiocytic differentiation have been referred to as “combined (or mixed) hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma.” These tumors, although described over 100 years ago, have attracted greater attention recently because of interest in possible stem cell origin and perhaps because of greater frequency and clinical recognition. Currently, because of a lack of common terminology in the literature, effective treatment and predictable outcome data have been challenging to accrue. This article represents a consensus document from an international community of pathologists, radiologists, and clinicians who have studied and reported on these tumors and recommends a working terminology for diagnostic and research approaches for further study and evaluation. Conclusion: It is recommended that diagnosis is based on routine histopathology with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E); immunostains are supportive, but not essential for diagnosis. (Hepatology 2018;68:113-126).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)113-126
Number of pages14
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 2018


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