Theories of outstanding, historically notable leadership have traditionally emphasized charisma. Recent research, however, suggests that charisma may represent only one pathway to outstanding leadership. Outstanding leadership may also emerge from ideological and pragmatic leadership. This article examines the conditions influencing the emergence and performance of charismatic, ideological, and pragmatic leaders. In particular, different conditions operating at the environmental, organizational, group, and individual levels influence the emergence and performance of each of these three types of leaders. Implications for understanding the origins and impact of charismatic, ideological, and pragmatic leaders are discussed as well.
- Outstanding leadership