Characterization of status epilepticus induced by two organophosphates in rats

Marko S. Todorovic, Morgan L. Cowan, Corrinee A. Balint, Chengsan Sun, Jaideep Kapur

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60 Scopus citations


Organophosphates (OPs) inhibit the enzyme cholinesterase and cause accumulation of acetylcholine, and are known to cause seizures and status epilepticus (SE) in humans. The animal models of SE caused by organophosphate analogs of insecticides are not well characterized. SE caused by OPs paraoxon and diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) in rats was characterized by electroencephalogram (EEG), behavioral observations and response to treatment with the benzodiazepine diazepam administered at various stages of SE. A method for SE induction using intrahippocampal infusion of paraoxon was also tested. Infusion of 200. nmol paraoxon into the hippocampus caused electrographic seizures in 43/52 (82.7%) animals tested; and of these animals, 14/43 (30%) had self-sustaining seizures that lasted 4-18. h after the end of paraoxon infusion. SE was also induced by peripheral subcutaneous injection of diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP, 1.25. mg/kg) or paraoxon (1.00. mg/kg) to rats pretreated with atropine (2. mg/kg) and 2-pralidoxime (2-PAM, 50. mg/kg) 30. min prior to OP injection. SE occurred in 78% paraoxon-treated animals and in 79% of DFP-treated animals. Diazepam (10. mg/kg) was administered 10. min and 30. min after the onset of continuous EEG seizures induced by paraoxon and it terminated SE in a majority of animals at both time points. DFP-induced SE was terminated in 60% animals when diazepam was administered 10. min after the onset of continuous EEG seizure activity but diazepam did not terminate SE in any animal when it was administered 30. min after the onset of continuous seizures. These studies demonstrate that both paraoxon and DFP can induce SE in rats but refractoriness to diazepam is a feature of DFP induced SE.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)268-276
Number of pages9
JournalEpilepsy Research
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2012


  • Benzodiazepine
  • Diazepam
  • EEG
  • Organophosphate
  • Seizures
  • Status epilepticus


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