Characterization of real-time cine MR imaging distortion on 0.35 T MRgRT with concentric cine imaging QA phantom

Shanti Marasini, Mike Cole, Austen Curcuru, Lara M. Dyke, H. Michael Gach, Rocco Flores, Taeho Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective. Real-time MRgRT uses 2D-cine imaging for target tracking and motion evaluation. Rotation of gantry induced B 0 off-resonance, resulting in image artifacts and imaging isocenter-shift precluding MR-guided arc therapy. Standard MRI phantoms designed for higher resolution images face challenges when low-resolution cine imaging is needed to achieve high frame rates. This work aimed to examine the spatial accuracy including geometric distortion and isocenter shift in real-time during gantry rotation on a 0.35 T MR-Linac using the concentric Cine imaging quality assurance (QA) phantom and its associated image analysis software. Approach. The Cine imaging QA phantom consists of two concentric shells of low-T1 mineral oil and a central alignment structure. The phantom was scanned on three different MRI systems; 0.55 T Siemens Free.Max, 1.5 T Philips Ingenia, and 0.35 T ViewRay MRIdian MR-Linac using 2D balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) imaging sequence. In addition, bSSFP cine MRI with the banding artifact correction was tested on 0.35 T ViewRay MR-Linac. Images from the MR-Linac were acquired with the Linac gantry stationary and rotating from gantry 300°→ 0° and vice versa. Three orthogonal image planes were scanned excluding the 1.5 T Philips Ingenia, where only the axial plane was scanned. The image analysis software calculated the distortion values as well as the isocenter position for each cine frame. Main results. The geometric distortion of cine imaging on MRIs and MR-Linac at gantry stationary are within 1 mm while the substantial geometric distortion of 2 and 2.2 mm were observed on 0.35 T MR-Linac while rotating the gantry clockwise (300°→ 0°) and counterclockwise 0°→ 300° respectively. The average imaging isocenter shift was 0.1 mm for both MRIs and the static gantry and imaging isocenter shift of ≤1.5 mm was observed during the gantry rotation. The imaging isocenter shift decreased by 1 ± 0.2 mm clockwise and counterclockwise with B 0 compensation. Significance. The concentric Cine imaging QA phantom and its associated software effectively demonstrate the image distortion on real-time cine imaging on regular MRIs and 0.35 T MR-Linac. The results of significant geometric distortion with a rotating gantry in the MR-Linac system require further investigation to alleviate the extent of the image distortion.

Original languageEnglish
Article number065009
JournalPhysics in medicine and biology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Mar 21 2024


  • B compensation
  • cine imaging QA phantom
  • real-time cine imaging
  • static and rotating gantry


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