Well-balanced and timed metabolism is essential for making a high-quality egg. However, the metabolic framework that supports oocyte development remains poorly understood. Here, we obtained the temporal metabolome profiles of mouse oocytes during in vivo maturation by isolating large number of cells at key stages. In parallel, quantitative proteomic analyses were conducted to bolster the metabolomic data, synergistically depicting the global metabolic patterns in oocytes. In particular, we discovered the metabolic features during meiotic maturation, such as the fall in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) level and the active serine-glycine-one-carbon (SGOC) pathway. Using functional approaches, we further identified the key targets mediating the action of PUFA arachidonic acid (ARA) on meiotic maturation and demonstrated the control of epigenetic marks in maturing oocytes by SGOC network. Our data serve as a broad resource on the dynamics occurring in metabolome and proteome during oocyte maturation.