Purpose: To characterize temperature fields and tissue damage profiles of large-volume hyperthermia (HT) induced by magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU) in deep and superficial targets in vivo in a porcine model. Methods: Nineteen HT sessions were performed in vivo with a commercial MRgHIFU system (Sonalleve® V2, Profound Medical Inc., Mississauga, ON, Canada) in hind leg muscles of eight pigs with temperature fields of cross-sectional diameter of 58-mm. Temperature statistics evaluated in the target region-of-interest (tROI) included accuracy, temporal variation, and uniformity. The impact of the number and location of imaging planes for feedback-based temperature control were investigated. Temperature fields were characterized by time-in-range (TIR, the duration each voxel stays within 40–45 °C) maps. Tissue damage was characterized by contrast-enhanced MRI, and macroscopic and histopathological analysis. The performance of the Sonalleve® system was benchmarked against a commercial phantom. Results: Across all HT sessions, the mean difference between the average temperature (Tavg) and the desired temperature was −0.4 ± 0.5 °C; the standard deviation of temperature 1.2 ± 0.2 °C; the temporal variation of Tavg for 30-min HT was 0.6 ± 0.2 °C, and the temperature uniformity was 1.5 ± 0.2 °C. A difference of 2.2-cm (in pig) and 1.5-cm (in phantom) in TIR dimensions was observed when applying feedback-based plane(s) at different locations. Histopathology showed 62.5% of examined HT sessions presenting myofiber degeneration/necrosis within the target volume. Conclusion: Large-volume MRgHIFU-mediated HT was successfully implemented and characterized in a porcine model in deep and superficial targets in vivo with heating distributions modifiable by user-definable parameters.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1159-1173
Number of pages15
JournalInternational Journal of Hyperthermia
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2020


  • HIFU
  • MR thermometry
  • MR-guided HIFU
  • hyperthermia
  • image-guided therapy


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