Characterization of an enhancer element in the human apolipoprotein C-III gene that regulates human apolipoprotein A-I gene expression in the intestinal epithelium

J. G. Bisaha, T. C. Simon, J. I. Gordon, J. L. Breslow

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

60 Scopus citations

Abstract

Studies using transgenic mice indicate that expression of the human apolipoprotein (apo) A-I gene in the liver and small intestine is controlled by spatially distinct cis-acting DNA elements; hepatic expression is controlled by a domain defined by nucleotides -256 to -1, while small intestinal expression requires elements positioned 9 kilobases 3' to the gene, between nucleotides -1300 and -200 of the convergently transcribed apoC-III gene. In this report we have mapped this enhancer to a 260-base pair (bp) region of the apoC-III promoter spanning nucleotides -780 to -520. The elements contained within this 260-bp apoC-III domain are sufficient to direct a pattern of expression in villus-associated enterocytes distributed along the duodenal-to-ileal axis that resembles that of mouse and human apoA- I. However, the elements produce inappropriate activation of apoA-I expression in proliferating and nonproliferating crypt epithelial cells, and in subpopulations of cholecystokinin- and serotonin-producing enteroendocrine cells. Cis-acting suppressors of these inappropriate patterns of expression are located outside of nucleotides -1300 to -200 of the human apoC-III gene. DNase I protection and gel mobility gel shift assays identified two 21-bp sequences, nucleotides -745 to -725 and -700 to -680 of human apoC-III, which bind nuclear proteins present in a human enterocyte-like cell line (Caco-2). These sequences are conserved in the orthologous mouse apoC-III gene. The 260-bp apoC-III element is the first intestinal enhancer that has been identified in an in vivo system and should provide insights about how cell lineage-specific, differentiation-dependent, and cephalocaudal patterns of gene expression are established and maintained in the perpetually renewing gut epithelium. In addition, novel intestinal transcription factors may bind to the enhancer and regulate its activity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)19979-19988
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Volume270
Issue number34
DOIs
StatePublished - 1995

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