Objective: The objective of this study was to compare characteristics of smokers who did and did not report use of cessation aids as part of a tobacco control program in a military setting (n = 8994). Design: The study is a longitudinal epidemiological study where the relationship between smoking status at follow-up and use of pharmacologic aids to quit smoking were assessed. Main Outcome Measures: Smoking cessation, post baseline use of cessation aids to quit smoking. Results and Conclusions: Individuals remaining abstinent were 70% less likely to have used NRT/pharmacological aids compared to those that relapsed. NRT/pharmacological aid users were more likely to report plans to smoke after military training, to have friends who smoke, and to accept a cigarette from a friend. NRT/pharmacological aid users were more likely to believe that using NRT was safer than smoking and to have engaged in harm reduction strategies. Our findings suggest that selection bias related to such characteristics may explain some of the discrepancies between effect sizes reported in efficacy compared to effectiveness studies of NRT and smoking outcomes currently reported in the literature.
- selection bias
- treatment seeking