Changes in Practice/Outcomes of Pediatric/Congenital Catheterization in Response to the First Wave of COVID

Brian Quinn, Oliver M. Barry, Sarosh P. Batlivala, Brian A. Boe, Andrew C. Glatz, Kimberlee Gauvreau, Bryan H. Goldstein, Todd M. Gudausky, Michael R. Hainstock, Ralf J. Holzer, George T. Nicholson, Sara M. Trucco, Wendy Whiteside, Mary Yeh, Lisa Bergersen, Michael L. O'Byrne

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4 Scopus citations


Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has posed tremendous stress on the health care system. Its effects on pediatric/congenital catheterization program practice and performance have not been described. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate how case volumes, risk-profile, and outcomes of pediatric/congenital catheterization procedures changed in response to the first wave of COVID-19 and after that wave. Methods: A multicenter retrospective observational study was performed using Congenital Cardiac Catheterization Project on Outcomes Registry (C3PO) data to study changes in volume, case mix, and outcomes (high-severity adverse events [HSAEs]) during the first wave of COVID (March 1, 2020, to May 31, 2020) in comparison to the period prior to (January 1, 2019, to February 28, 2020) and after (June 1, 2020, to December 31, 2020) the first wave. Multivariable analyses adjusting for case type, hemodynamic vulnerability, and age group were performed. Hospital responses to the first wave were captured with an electronic study instrument. Results: During the study period, 12,557 cases were performed at 14 C3PO hospitals (with 8% performed during the first wave of COVID and 32% in the postperiod). Center case volumes decreased from a median 32.1 cases/month (IQR: 20.7-49.0 cases/month) before COVID to 22 cases/month (IQR: 13-31 cases/month) during the first wave (P = 0.001). The proportion of cases with risk factors for HSAE increased during the first wave, specifically proportions of infants and neonates (P < 0.001) and subjects with renal insufficiency (P = 0.02), recent cardiac surgery (P < 0.001), and a higher hemodynamic vulnerability score (P = 0.02). The observed HSAE risk did not change significantly (P = 0.13). In multivariable analyses, odds of HSAE during the first wave of COVID (odds ratio: 0.75) appeared to be lower than that before COVID, but the difference was not significant (P = 0.09). Conclusions: Despite increased case-mix complexity, C3PO programs maintained, if not improved, their performance in terms of HSAE. Exploratory analyses of practice changes may inform future harm-reduction efforts.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100143
JournalJACC: Advances
Issue number5
StatePublished - Dec 2022


  • catheterization
  • health services research
  • outcomes research
  • pediatric cardiology


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