Individuals with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD), although the causal relationship remains poorly understood. Alterations in insulin signaling (IS) are reported in the AD brain. Moreover, oligomers/fibrils of amyloid-ß (Aß) can lead to neuronal insulin resistance and intranasal insulin is being explored as a potential therapy for AD. Conversely, elevated insulin levels (ins) are found in AD patients and high insulin has been reported to increase Aß levelsand tau phosphorylation, which could exacerbate AD pathology. Herein, we explore whether changes in ins and IS are a cause or consequence of AD.