Background. Mild to moderate adverse events (AEs) are common after treatment of lymphatic filariasis (LF) and pose a major challenge for the global LF elimination program. We studied changes in cytokine levels and filarial worm components in plasma of subjects with and without AEs following treatment of LF. Methods. Participants (n = 24) were hospitalized and monitored for AEs following treatment. Cytokines (27), filarial DNA, circulating filarial antigen (CFA), and immune complexes were measured in plasma samples collected before and after treatment. Results. Levels for 16 cytokines increased after treatment in individuals with moderate AEs compared to individuals with no and/or mild AEs. These included 3 major proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor á, and interleukin 1â). Eotaxin-1 levels were elevated at baseline in individuals who developed moderate AEs after treatment; thus, eotaxin-1 is a potential biomarker for AE risk. CFA and filarial DNA levels increased more in individuals with moderate AEs after treatment than in people with no/mild AEs. Conclusions. Increases in cytokine, filarial DNA, and CFA levels were associated with development of AEs following treatment of LF. Improved understanding of the pathogenesis of AEs may lead to improved methods for their prevention or management that could increase compliance in elimination programs.
- adverse events
- circulating filarial antigenemia
- lymphatic filariasis