This study assessed changes in circulating parasite antigen levels after diethylcarbamazine (DEC) and ivermectin treatment of bancroftian filariasis to determine effects of these drugs on adult Wuchereria bancrofti in vivo. Thirty adult Haitians with microfilaremia were treated with 1 mg of ivermectin to reduce counts of microfilariae. Later, subjects were treated with either one or two 200 μg/kg doses of ivermectin or with 12 daily 6 mg/kg doses of DEC. Macrofilaricidal activity of these drugs was indirectly monitored by measuring circulating W. bancrofti antigen by EIA. Antigen levels fell by 75% after DEC and by 34% after ivermectin. These results suggest that low-dose ivermectin treatment followed by a standard course of DEC is a more effective macrofilaricidal regimen for W. bancrofti than either of the multidose ivermectin regimens used in this study.