Cervical inlet patch-optical coherence tomography imaging and clinical significance

Chao Zhou, Tejas Kirtane, Tsung Han Tsai, Hsiang Chieh Lee, Desmond C. Adler, Joseph M. Schmitt, Qin Huang, James G. Fujimoto, Hiroshi Mashimo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


AIM: To demonstrate the feasibility of optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging in differentiating cervical inlet patch (CIP) from normal esophagus, Barrett's esophagus (BE), normal stomach and duodenum. METHODS: This study was conducted at the Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System (VABHS). Patients undergoing standard esophagogastroduodenoscopy at VABHS, including one patient with CIP, one representative patient with BE and three representative normal subjects were included. White light video endoscopy was performed and endoscopic 3D-OCT images were obtained in each patient using a prototype OCT system. The OCT imaging probe passes through the working channel of the endoscope to enable simultaneous video endoscopy and 3D-OCT examination of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Standard hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) histology was performed on biopsy or endoscopic mucosal resection specimens in order to compare and validate the 3D-OCT data. RESULTS: CIP was observed from a 68-year old male with gastroesophageal reflux disease. The CIP region appeared as a pink circular lesion in the upper esophagus under white light endoscopy. OCT imaging over the CIP region showed columnar epithelium structure, which clearly contrasted the squamous epithelium structure from adjacent normal esophagus. 3D-OCT images obtained from other representative patients demonstrated distinctive patterns of the normal esophagus, BE, normal stomach, and normal duodenum bulb. Microstructures, such as squamous epithelium, lamina propria, muscularis mucosa, muscularis propria, esophageal glands, Barrett's glands, gastric mucosa, gastric glands, and intestinal mucosal villi were clearly observed with OCT and matched with H and E histology. These results demonstrated the feasibility of using OCT to evaluate GI tissue morphology in situ and in real-time. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate in situ evaluation of CIP microstructures using 3D-OCT, which may be a useful tool for future diagnosis and follow-up of patients with CIP.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2502-2510
Number of pages9
JournalWorld Journal of Gastroenterology
Issue number20
StatePublished - May 28 2012


  • Barrett's esophagus
  • Cervical inlet patch
  • Heterotopic gastric mucosa
  • Optical biopsy
  • Optical coherence tomography


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