Objective: The recent approval of a vaccine to prevent HPV infection is an important advance in cervical cancer prevention. This article is intended to provide gynecologic oncologists with a comprehensive background in modern cervical cancer prevention strategies. Methods: We describe and contrast the quadrivalent and bivalent vaccines. More established cervical cancer prevention strategies are reviewed, with comments on the impact of HPV vaccination. Clinical guidance is provided for use of the approved quadrivalent vaccine. Safety and side effects of both vaccines are reviewed and future questions and challenges are explored. Results: It is vitally important that both vaccinated and unvaccinated women continue to fully engage in cervical cancer prevention, including cervical cancer screening, follow-up of abnormal screens, and treatment of premalignant lesions. A quadrivalent virus-like particle vaccine has now been approved for use in girls and women ages 9 to 26. A bivalent vaccine may be available soon. Vaccine efficacy in clinical trials has been outstanding, with 100% protection against HPV-type-specific cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) II and III. Conclusions: Comprehensive cervical cancer protection now includes prophylactic vaccination for girls and young women in addition to screening and treatment of premalignant changes. Gynecologic oncologists will continue to play an important role in promoting optimal prevention practices.