Individuals affected with the neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) tumor predisposition syndrome are prone to the development of multiple nervous system tumors, including optic pathway gliomas (OPG). The NF1 tumor suppressor gene product, neurofibromin, functions as a Ras GTPase-activating protein, and has been proposed to regulate cell growth by inhibiting Ras activity. Recent studies from our laboratory have shown that neurofibromin also regulates the mammalian target of rapamycin activity in a Ras-dependent fashion, and that the rapamycin-mediated mammalian target of rapamycin inhibition ameliorates the Nf1-/- astrocyte growth advantage. Moreover, Nf1-deficient astrocytes exhibit increased protein translation. As part of a larger effort to identify protein markers for NF1-associated astrocytomas that could be exploited for therapeutic drug design, we did an objective proteomic analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid from genetically engineered Nf1 mice with optic glioma. One of the proteins found to be increased in the cerebrospinal fluid of OPG-bearing mice was the eukaryotic initiation factor-2α binding protein, methionine aminopeptidase 2 (MetAP2). In this study, we show that Nf1 mouse OPGs and NF1-associated human astrocytic tumors, but not sporadic pilocytic or other low-grade astrocytomas, specifically expressed high levels of MetAP2. In addition, we show that Nf1-deficient astrocytes overexpress MetAP2 in vitro and in vivo, and that treatment with the MetAP2 inhibitor fumagillin significantly reduces Nf1-/- astrocyte proliferation in vitro. These observations suggest that MetAP2 is regulated by neurofibromin, and that MetAP2 inhibitors could be potentially employed to treat NF1-associated tumor proliferation.