We aimed to validate oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) estimations by quantitative susceptibility mapping plus quantitative blood oxygen-level dependence (QSM+qBOLD, or QQ) using 15O-PET. In ten healthy adult brains, PET and MRI were acquired simultaneously on a PET/MR scanner. PET was acquired using C[15O], O[15O], and H2[15O]. Image-derived arterial input functions and standard models of oxygen metabolism provided quantification of PET. MRI included T1-weighted imaging, time-of-flight angiography, and multi-echo gradient-echo imaging that was processed for QQ. Region of interest (ROI) analyses compared PET OEF and QQ OEF. In ROI analyses, the averaged OEF differences between PET and QQ were generally small and statistically insignificant. For whole brains, the average and standard deviation of OEF was 32.8 ± 6.7% for PET; OEF was 34.2 ± 2.6% for QQ. Bland-Altman plots quantified agreement between PET OEF and QQ OEF. The interval between the 95% limits of agreement was 16.9 ± 4.0% for whole brains. Our validation study suggests that respiratory challenge-free QQ-OEF mapping may be useful for non-invasive clinical assessment of regional OEF impairment.
- Oxygen extraction fraction
- positron emission tomography
- quantitative blood oxygenation level-dependent imaging
- quantitative susceptibility mapping