Central vein sign and other radiographic features distinguishing myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody disease from multiple sclerosis and aquaporin-4 antibody-positive neuromyelitis optica

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Abstract

Background: Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody disease (MOGAD) can radiographically mimic multiple sclerosis (MS) and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody-positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). Central vein sign (CVS) prevalence has not yet been well-established in MOGAD. Objective: Characterize the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance and CVS prevalence of MOGAD patients in comparison to matched cohorts of MS and AQP4+ NMOSD. Methods: Clinical MRIs from 26 MOGAD patients were compared to matched cohorts of MS and AQP4+ NMOSD. Brain MRIs were assessed for involvement within predefined regions of interest. CVS was assessed by overlaying fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and susceptibility-weighted sequences. Topographic analyses were performed on spinal cord and orbital MRIs when available. Results: MOGAD patients had fewer brain lesions and average CVS+ rate of 12.1%, compared to 44.4% in MS patients (p = 0.0008). MOGAD spinal cord and optic nerve involvement was lengthier than MS (5.8 vs 1.0 vertebral segments, p = 0.020; 3.0 vs 0.5 cm, p < 0.0001). MOGAD patients tended to have bilateral/anterior optic nerve pathology with perineural contrast enhancement, contrasting with posterior optic nerve involvement in NMOSD. Conclusion: CVS+ rate and longer segments of involvement in the spinal cord and optic nerve can differentiate MOGAD from MS, but do not discriminate as well between MOGAD and AQP4+ NMOSD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)49-60
Number of pages12
JournalMultiple Sclerosis Journal
Volume28
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2022

Keywords

  • Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody disease
  • central vein sign
  • magnetic resonance imaging
  • multiple sclerosis
  • neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder

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