Axonal growth is fundamental to the establishment of neuronal connectivity in the brain. However, the cell-intrinsic mechanisms that govern axonal morphogenesis remain to be elucidated. The ubiquitin ligase Cdh1-anaphase-promoting complex (Cdh1-APC) suppresses the growth of axons in postmitotic neurons. Here, we report that Cdh1-APC operates in the nucleus to inhibit axonal growth. We also identify the transcriptional corepressor SnoN as a key target of neuronal Cdh1-APC that promotes axonal growth. Cdh1 forms a physical complex with SnoN and stimulates the ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation of SnoN in neurons. Knockdown of SnoN in neurons significantly reduces axonal growth and suppresses Cdh1 RNAi enhancement of axonal growth. In addition, SnoN knockdown in vivo suggests an essential function for SnoN in the development of granule neuron parallel fibers in the cerebellar cortex. These findings define Cdh1-APC and SnoN as components of a cell-intrinsic pathway that orchestrates axonal morphogenesis in a transcription-dependent manner in the mammalian brain.