Background & Aims It is important to increase our understanding of gustatory detection of dietary fat and its contribution to fat preference. We studied the roles of the fat taste receptors CD36 and GPR120 and their interactions via Ca2+ signaling in fungiform taste bud cells (TBC). Methods We measured Ca2+ signaling in human TBC, transfected with small interfering RNAs against messenger RNAs encoding CD36 and GPR120 (or control small interfering RNAs). We also studied Ca2+ signaling in TBC from CD36-/- mice and from wild-type lean and obese mice. Additional studies were conducted with mouse enteroendocrine cell line STC-1 that express GPR120 and stably transfected with human CD36. We measured release of serotonin and glucagon-like peptide-1 from human and mice TBC in response to CD36 and GPR120 activation. Results High concentrations of linoleic acid induced Ca2+ signaling via CD36 and GPR120 in human and mice TBC, as well as in STC-1 cells, and low concentrations induced Ca2+ signaling via only CD36. Incubation of human and mice fungiform TBC with lineoleic acid down-regulated CD36 and up-regulated GPR120 in membrane lipid rafts. Obese mice had decreased spontaneous preference for fat. Fungiform TBC from obese mice had reduced Ca2+ and serotonin responses, but increased release of glucagon-like peptide-1, along with reduced levels of CD36 and increased levels of GPR120 in lipid rafts. Conclusions CD36 and GPR120 have nonoverlapping roles in TBC signaling during orogustatory perception of dietary lipids; these are differentially regulated by obesity.
- Linoleic Acid