Recruitment of macrophage precursors to the adventitia plays a key role in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), but molecular mechanisms remain undefined. The innate immune signaling molecule CD14 was reported to be upregulated in adventitial macrophages in a murine model of AAA and in monocytes cocultured with aortic adventitial fibroblasts (AoAf) in vitro, concurrent with increased interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression. We hypothesized that CD14 plays a crucial role in adventitial macrophage precursor recruitment early during AAA formation. CD14(-/-) mice were resistant to AAA formation induced by 2 different AAA induction models: aortic elastase infusion and systemic angiotensin II (AngII) infusion. CD14 gene deletion led to reduced aortic macrophage infiltration and diminished elastin degradation. Adventitial monocyte binding to AngII-infused aorta in vitro was dependent on CD14, and incubation of human acute monocytic leukemia cell line-1 (THP-1) monocytes with IL-6 or conditioned medium from perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) upregulated CD14 expression. Conditioned medium from AoAf and PVAT induced CD14-dependent monocyte chemotaxis, which was potentiated by IL-6. CD14 expression in aorta and plasma CD14 levels were increased in AAA patients compared with controls. These findings link CD14 innate immune signaling via a novel IL-6 amplification loop to adventitial macrophage precursor recruitment in the pathogenesis of AAA.