Background. The etiology of acute childhood diarrhea often eludes identification. We used a case-control study-stool archive to determine if nucleic acid tests for established and newly identified viruses diminish our previously published 32% rate of microbiologically unexplained episodes. Methods. Using polymerase chain reaction, we sought to detect noroviruses GI and GII, classic and novel astroviruses, and human bocaviruses (HBoVs) 2, 3, and 4 among 178 case and 178 matched control stool samples and St. Louis and Malawi polyomaviruses among a subset of 98 case and control stool samples. We calculated adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using conditional logistic regression. Results. Noroviruses were more common in cases (GI, 2.2%; GII, 16.9%) than in controls (GI, 0%; GII, 4.5%) (adjusted odds ratio, 5.2 [95% confidence interval, 2.5-11.3]). Astroviruses and HBoVs 2, 3, and 4 were overrepresented among the cases, although this difference was not statistically significant. Malawi polyomavirus was not associated with case status, and St. Louis polyomavirus was identified in only 1 subject (a control). When identified in cases, HBoVs 2, 3, and 4 were frequently (77%) found in conjunction with a bona fide diarrheagenic pathogen. Thirty-five (20%) case and 3 (2%) control stool samples contained more than 1 organism of interest. Overall, a bona fide or plausible pathogen was identified in 79% of the case stool samples. Preceding antibiotic use was more common among cases (adjusted odds ratio, 4.5 [95% confidence interval, 2.3-8.5]). Conclusion. Noroviruses were found to cause one-third of the diarrhea cases that previously had no identified etiology. Future work should attempt to ascertain etiologic agents in the approximately one-fifth of cases without a plausible microbial cause, understand the significance of multiple agents in stools, and guide interpretation of nonculture diagnostics.
|Journal||Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society|
|State||Published - Sep 1 2017|
- Human bocaviruses