CARMIL family proteins as multidomain regulators of actin-based motility

Benjamin C. Stark, M. Hunter Lanier, John A. Cooper

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

26 Scopus citations


CARMILs are large multidomain proteins that regulate the actin-binding activity of capping protein (CP), a major capper of actin filament barbed ends in cells. CARMILs bind directly to CP and induce a conformational change that allosterically decreases but does not abolish its actin-capping activity. The CP-binding domain of CARMIL consists of the CP-interaction (CPI) and CARMIL-specific interaction (CSI) motifs, which are arranged in tandem. Many cellular functions of CARMILs require the interaction with CP; however, a more surprising result is that the cellular function of CP in cells appears to require binding to a CARMIL or another protein with a CPI motif, suggesting that CPI-motif proteins target CP and modulate its actin-capping activity. Vertebrates have three highly conserved genes and expressed isoforms of CARMIL with distinct and overlapping localizations and functions in cells. Various domains of these CARMIL isoforms interact with plasma membranes, vimentin intermediate filaments, SH3-containing class I myosins, the dual-GEF Trio, and other adaptors and signaling molecules. These biochemical properties suggest that CARMILs play a variety of membrane-associated functions related to actin assembly and signaling. CARMIL mutations and variants have been implicated in several human diseases. We focus on roles for CARMILs in signaling in addition to their function as regulators of CP and actin.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1713-1723
Number of pages11
JournalMolecular biology of the cell
Issue number13
StatePublished - Jul 1 2017


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