Carfilzomib-based antibody mediated rejection therapy in pediatric kidney transplant recipients

Ellen M. Cody, Charles Varnell, Danielle Lazear, Katherine VandenHeuvel, Francisco X. Flores, E. Steve Woodle, David K. Hooper

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Background: To date, the evidence for proteasome-inhibitor (PI) based antibody mediated rejection (AMR) therapy has been with the first-generation PI bortezomib. Results have demonstrated encouraging efficacy for early AMR with lesser efficacy for late AMR. Unfortunately, bortezomib is associated with dose-limiting adverse effects in some patients. We report use of the second generation proteosome inhibitor carfilzomib for AMR treatment in two pediatric patients with a kidney transplant. Methods: The clinical data on two patients who experienced dose limiting toxicities from bortezomib were collected along with their short- and long-term outcomes. Results: A two-year-old female with simultaneous AMR, multiple de novo DSAs (DR53 MFI 3900, DQ9 MFI 6600, DR15 2200, DR51 MFI 1900) and T-cell mediated rejection (TCMR) completed three carfilzomib cycles and experienced stage 1 acute kidney injury after the first two cycles. At 1 year follow up, all DSAs resolved, and her kidney function returned to baseline without recurrence. A 17-year-old female also developed AMR with multiple de novo DSAs (DQ5 MFI 9900, DQ6 MFI 9800, DQA*01 MFI 9900). She completed two carfilzomib cycles, which were associated with acute kidney injury. She had resolution of rejection on biopsy and decreased but persistent DSAs on follow-up. Conclusions: Carfilzomib treatment for bortezomib-refractory rejection and/or bortezomib toxicity may provide DSA elimination or reduction, but also appears to be associated with nephrotoxicity. Clinical development of carfilzomib for AMR will require a better understanding of efficacy and development of approaches to mitigate nephrotoxicity.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere14534
JournalPediatric transplantation
Issue number7
StatePublished - Nov 2023


  • acute kidney injury
  • antibody-mediated rejection
  • carfilzomib
  • kidney transplant
  • pediatric


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