The extrapulmonary manifestation of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), became apparent early in the ongoing pandemic. It is now recognized that cells of the cardiovascular system are targets of SARS-CoV-2 infection and associated disease pathogenesis. While some details are emerging, much remains to be understood pertaining to the mechanistic basis by which SARS-CoV-2 contributes to acute and chronic manifestations of COVID-19. This knowledge has the potential to improve clinical management for the growing populations of patients impacted by COVID-19. Here, we review the epidemiology and pathophysiology of cardiovascular sequelae of COVID-19 and outline proposed disease mechanisms, including direct SARS-CoV-2 infection of major cardiovascular cell types and pathogenic effects of non-infectious viral particles and elicited inflammatory mediators. Finally, we identify the major outstanding questions in cardiovascular COVID-19 research.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1137
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2022


  • COVID-19
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • cardiomyocyte
  • myocarditis
  • pericyte
  • post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection
  • thrombosis


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