Background: Cancer survival rates have been steadily improving in the adolescent and young adult (AYA) population, but survivors are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The cardiotoxic effects of anthracycline therapy have been well studied. However, the cardiovascular toxicity associated with newer therapies, such as the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors, is less well understood. Objective: This retrospective study of AYA cancer survivors sought to gain insight into their burden of cardiovascular toxicities (CT) following initiation of anthracycline and/or VEGF inhibitor therapy. Methods: Data were extracted from electronic medical records over a fourteen-year period at a single institution. Cox proportional hazards regression modeling was used to examine risk factors for CT within each treatment group. Cumulative incidence was calculated with death as a competing risk. Results: Of the 1,165 AYA cancer survivors examined, 32%, 22%, and 34% of patients treated with anthracycline, VEGF inhibitor, or both, developed CT. Hypertension was the most common outcome reported. Males were at increased risk for CT following anthracycline therapy (HR: 1.34, 95% CI 1.04–1.73). The cumulative incidence of CT was highest in patients who received both anthracycline and VEGF inhibitor (50% at ten years of follow up). Conclusions: CT was common among AYA cancer survivors who received anthracycline and/or VEGF inhibitor therapy. Male sex was an independent risk factor for CT following anthracycline treatment. Further screening and surveillance are warranted to continue understanding the burden of CVD following VEGF inhibitor therapy.

Original languageEnglish
Article number30
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2023


  • Cancer survivors
  • Cancer therapies
  • Cardiotoxicity


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