Cardiac Surgery in Women in the Current Era: What Are the Gaps in Care?

Leslie Cho, Melina R. Kibbe, Faisal Bakaeen, Niti R. Aggarwal, Melinda B. Davis, Tara Karmalou, Jennifer S. Lawton, Maral Ouzounian, Ourania Preventza, Andrea M. Russo, Annie Laurie W. Shroyer, Brittany A. Zwischenberger, Kathryn J. Lindley

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality for women in United States and worldwide. One in 3 women dies from cardiovascular disease, and 45% of women >20 years old have some form of CVD. Historically, women have had higher morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery. Sex influences pathogenesis, pathophysiology, presentation, postoperative complications, surgical outcomes, and survival. This review summarizes current cardiovascular surgery outcomes as they pertain to women. Specifically, this article seeks to address whether sex disparities in research, surgical referral, and outcomes still exist and to provide strategies to close these gaps. In addition, with the growing population of women of reproductive age with cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular risk factors, indications for cardiac surgery arise in pregnant women. The current review will also address the unique issues associated with this special population.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1172-1185
Number of pages14
Issue number14
StatePublished - Oct 5 2021


  • aortic disease
  • aortic stenosis
  • coronary artery bypass grafting surgery
  • mitral valve disease
  • pregnancy
  • sex differences
  • valve surgery


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