Little systematic information is available on mental health issues related to bioterrorism. Five focus groups were conducted with Capitol Hill office staff (n = 28 total participants) to learn about their experience of the anthrax incident on October 15, 2001. More than 2,000 verbal passages were coded into categories and themes by using qualitative analysis software. Issues emerging from the discussions included difficulties utilizing customary social supports, concerns over potential long-term dangers created by efforts to eradicate the anthrax, and nonadherence to antianthrax medication regimens. Nonadherence to antibiotic prophylaxis is of immediate concern for response to future bioterrorist events as well as infectious disease epidemics. Other topics that warrant attention are social support and mental health interventions.